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Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Mar;3(3):225-30.

Demographic and lifestyle predictors of survival in patients with esophageal or gastric cancers.

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Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB #7435, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7435, USA.



Risk factors for subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer recently have been identified, but their effect on survival is unknown.


Incident cases (n = 1142) from a population-based case-control study were followed-up from diagnosis (1993-1995) until 2000. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for esophageal and gastric cancer in relation to prediagnostic factors.


Relative to distant stage, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) patients with localized disease had a decreased risk for death (HR, .22; 95% CI, .15-.31), followed by those with regional spread (HR, .32; 95% CI, .23-.45). Similar patterns were seen for the other tumor types. Except for other (non-cardia) gastric adenocarcinomas (OGA), higher household income (> or =15,000 US dollars/y vs. <15,000 US dollars/y) was associated with a 33%-38% decrease in risk for death. Prediagnosis body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 29.9 kg/m 2 was associated with longer survival for EA and OGA patients (EA: HR, .67; 95% CI, .51-.88) vs. BMI <25 kg/m(2). Women with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ES) and OGA experienced longer survival compared with men. Age, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use did not consistently predict survival.


Predictors of lengthened esophageal and gastric cancer survival included higher income (except in OGA), overweight (among EA and OGA patients), and female sex (among ES and OGA patients).

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