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HIV Clin Trials. 2005 Jan-Feb;6(1):5-24.

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in the HAART-treated HIV-1 population.

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  • 1Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.


Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population, is also an increasing cause for concern for HIV-infected patients. A number of risk factors for CVD are also associated with HIV disease and HIV therapy, particularly insulin resistance, metabolic dyslipidemia, and inflammation. For example, atherogenic dyslipidemia, a side effect of HIV therapy, is an established risk for CVD in the non-HIV-infected population. As our understanding of atherosclerotic disease evolves, new markers of CVD risk have been identified, including metabolic syndrome definitions and C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation. Use of these markers, in association with established risk factor guidelines, may serve as important tools in helping HIV physicians implement drug regimens that allow optimum management of metabolic complications associated with HIV and HAART, and thereby reduce CVD risk. The objective of this article is to review the mechanisms of atherosclerotic CVD and to discuss risk factors and markers that can be applied in the evaluation and treatment of CVD in the HIV-positive population.

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