Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Apr 1;38(4):480-7.

Prevalence of elevated cholesterol and associated risk factors among perinatally HIV-infected children (4-19 years old) in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.



HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are known to disturb lipid metabolism in adults, leading to hypercholesterolemia. A number of cross-sectional studies have also reported this phenomenon in perinatally HIV-infected children but differ greatly with respect to prevalence and/or methodology.


The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C (PACTG 219C) is a prospective cohort study designed to examine long-term outcomes in children born to HIV-infected women. The outcome of interest in this analysis was total cholesterol, and patients were classified as hypercholesterolemic if their total cholesterol was above the 95th percentile of US Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) standards for gender, race/ethnicity, and age. We hypothesized that hypercholesterolemia would be more common among older children receiving PI therapy who demonstrated excellent adherence and might be associated with hypertension and obesity. Information regarding treatment, adherence, and laboratory values was obtained using the date closest to the cholesterol measurement. Crude and adjusted effect measures were estimated using exposure odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.


Among 1812 HIV-infected participants between 4 and 19 years of age, 229 children had hypercholesterolemia (prevalence = 13.0%, 95% CI: 11.1-14.3) compared with 9 of 187 HIV-uninfected children (prevalence = 4.8%, 95% CI: 2.2-8.8). After adjusting for confounders, current PI use (OR = 5.3, 95% CI: 3.1-9.2), age from 4 to <6 years (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.7-4.9), HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.2), self-report of no missed doses in the past 3 days (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8), white race (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4-3.3), age from 6 to <12 years (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9), Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.5), and current nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor use (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3) were independently associated with the presence of hypercholesterolemia among the HIV-infected children. There was a positive association with elevated systolic blood pressure in univariate but not multivariate analysis, and no association was present with body mass index.


Among the HIV-infected children, the overall prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 13.0% and the strongest associated risk factor for hypercholesterolemia was current use of a PI in the antiretroviral regimen. Continued follow-up is needed to assess the long-term effects of hypercholesterolemia in children.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    Loading ...
    Support Center