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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Apr 1;38(4):417-25.

Abacavir once or twice daily combined with once-daily lamivudine and efavirenz for the treatment of antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults: results of the Ziagen Once Daily in Antiretroviral Combination Study.

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Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, HIV Clinic, London, United Kingdom.


The long intracellular half-life of abacavir (ABC) supports its once-daily use, and this would be expected to simplify treatment if ABC could be given as part of a complete once-daily regimen. A randomized double-blind clinical trial compared the efficacy and safety of 600 mg of ABC administered once daily (n = 384) versus 300 mg of ABC administered twice daily (n = 386) in combination with 300 mg of lamivudine (3TC) and 600 mg of efavirenz (EFV) administered once daily in antiretroviral-naive patients over 48 weeks. The baseline median plasma HIV-1 RNA level was 4.89 log10 copies/mL (44% with viral load >100,000 copies/mL), and the median CD4 cell count was 262 cells/mm. ABC administered once daily was non-inferior to the twice-daily regimen, with 66% and 68% of patients in these respective treatment arms achieving a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA level <50 copies/mL (95% confidence interval: -8.4%, 4.9%). The ABC once-daily and twice-daily regimens were similar with respect to infrequency of virologic failure (10% vs. 8%), emergence of resistance mutations, CD4 cell increases from baseline (median, 188 vs. 200 cells/mm), safety profile, and incidence of ABC-related hypersensitivity reactions (9% vs. 7%). ABC administered once daily in combination with 3TC and EFV administered once daily was non-inferior to the ABC twice-daily dosing schedule when combined with 3TC and EFV over 48 weeks.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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