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AIDS. 2005 Mar 25;19(5):455-62.

Renal tubular transporters and antiviral drugs: an update.

Abstract

Systemic disposition of antiviral drugs partly depends on renal handling of these compounds. There are some known, functionally characterized anionic and cationic transporters with varying substrate specificities for those drugs: human organic anion transporter (OAT) family (hOAT1-3) and human organic cation transporter (OCT) family (hOCT1-3), which mediate the intracellular flux, and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporter family (P-glycoprotein, MRP2-5), which mediate the cellular efflux of antiviral drugs. The peptide transporter (PEPT1-2) mediate bi-directional facilitated diffusion of valacyclovir. All these transporters are expressed in the kidney. Organic anion and cation transporters primarily localize to the basolateral membrane of renal epithelial cells while ATP-binding cassette transporters primarily localize to the apical membrane. These transporters work in concert to mediate renal intracellular concentration of occurring antiviral drugs. Along with drug-metabolizing enzymes, these transporters are important determinants of drug effectiveness and toxicity. This review examines the role that these transporters play in renal disposition of antiviral drugs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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