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Inhal Toxicol. 2005 Feb;17(2):79-85.

The proportions of Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum in simultaneous exposure affect inflammatory responses in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages.

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Department of Environmental Health, National Public Health Institute, Kuopio, Finland.


Adverse health outcomes associated with moisture-damaged buildings originate from an exposure consisting of complex interactions between various microbial species and other indoor pollutants. The concentrations and proportions of microbial components in such environments can vary greatly with the growth conditions. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of simultaneous exposure with modified proportions of actinobacteria Streptomyces californicus and fungi Stachybotrys chartarum on inflammatory responses (cytokines macrophage inflammatory protein 2 [MIP2], interleukin 6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor a [TNFa]; nitric oxide) and cytotoxicity (MTT-test and DNA content analysis) in mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. Five different proportions of microbial spores were studied (Str. californicus: S. chartarum 10:1; 5:1; 1:1; 1:5; 1:10). RAW264.7 cells were coexposed to the total dose of 3x10(5) spores/ml for 24 h and also both of these microbial spores on their own at the respective doses. At least the 1.5-fold synergistic increase in cytokine production of RAW264.7 macrophages was detected when coexposure contained an equal amount or more fungal spores (S. chartarum) than bacterial spores (Str. californicus) compared to the sum response caused by these microbial spores separately. On the contrary, NO production after coexposure was nearly 40% less than the sum response induced by the microbial spores separately, when coexposure contains 5 times more bacterial than fungal spores. In addition, coexposure slightly changed the cytotoxic potency of the spores. The present results revealed that mutual proportions of fungal and bacterial spores in simultaneous exposure affect the nature of their interactions leading to increased or suppressed production of inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 macrophages.

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