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Am J Reprod Immunol. 2005 Apr;53(4):172-81.

Homing in on the cellular immune response to HSV-2 in humans.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA. viralimm@u.washington.edu

Abstract

PROBLEM:

Genital herpes simplex infections are generally limited to epithelia and neurons. Vaccines have had activity in herpes simplex virus (HSV)-seronegative women only. Understanding how HSV-specific T cells traffic to infected sites may assist in vaccine design.

METHOD OF STUDY:

Herpes simplex virus epitopes recognized by HSV-specific CD8 T cells were identified and used to make fluorescent human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-peptide tetramers. Molecules related to lymphocyte rolling adhesion were studied by flow cytometry and cell binding. HSV-specific CD4 T cells identified ex vivo by cytokine accumulation or activation marker expression, or detected in vitro by 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution, were similarly investigated.

RESULTS:

Herpes simplex virus-specific T cells are 10- to 100-fold more prevalent in lesional skin compared with blood and greatly enriched in lesions compared with normal skin. Diverse viral antigens are recognized by HSV-specific T cells. Functionally active E-selectin ligand, and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA), are expressed by circulating HSV-2-specific CD8 cells. CD4 cells display lower levels of CLA that are dramatically up-regulated upon re-stimulation with antigen.

CONCLUSIONS:

Herpes simplex virus-2-specific CD8 and CD4 T cells differ in constitutive expression of skin homing molecules. Vaccines designed to induce proper homing are postulated to have increased efficacy.

PMID:
15760378
PMCID:
PMC1255910
DOI:
10.1111/j.1600-0897.2005.00262.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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