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Annu Rev Public Health. 2005;26:399-419.

Adolescent resilience: a framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk.

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Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109, USA.


Adolescent resilience research differs from risk research by focusing on the assets and resources that enable some adolescents to overcome the negative effects of risk exposure. We discuss three models of resilience-the compensatory, protective, and challenge models-and describe how resilience differs from related concepts. We describe issues and limitations related to resilience and provide an overview of recent resilience research related to adolescent substance use, violent behavior, and sexual risk behavior. We then discuss implications that resilience research has for intervention and describe some resilience-based interventions.

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