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J Urol. 2005 Apr;173(4):1102-7.

Intermediate followup of hand assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for urothelial carcinoma: factors associated with outcomes.

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Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.



We report our experience with hand assisted laparoscopic (HALS) nephroureterectomy and describe the associations of preoperative, operative and pathological factors with outcome.


HALS nephroureterectomy was performed in 54 consecutive patients using modified transurethral resection of the ureteral orifice (TURUO) or a 1 port transvesical endoscopic cuff technique for the distal ureter in all except 8. Data were collected prospectively and retrospectively, and followup was distinguished for bladder, contralateral upper tract and nonurothelial (local recurrence and distant metastases) sites.


The endoscopic cuff was associated with significantly shorter mean operative time than the transurethral resection of the ureteral orifice method (234 vs 295 minutes, p = 0.002) but the comparison was confounded by the effect of experience. With 28% of patients having stage II or greater tumors and 49% having high grade bladder disease, contralateral upper tract and nonurothelial recurrences developed in 55%, 11% and 25% of evaluable patients at a median followup of 25.1, 24.4 and 24.9 months, respectively, in those without recurrence. At a median followup of 25.0 months cancer specific survival was 94%, 86% and 80% at 1 to 3 years, respectively. Three-year cancer specific survival was 100% in patents with grade 1 or 2, or stage 0 or I tumors but only 57% and 36% in patients with grade 3 and stage II or IV tumors, respectively.


HALS nephroureterectomy is associated with 3-year outcomes that are strongly associated with stage and grade. We prefer the endoscopic cuff method for the distal ureter because it is performed after nephrectomy, does not require patient repositioning and is expedient.

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