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Eur J Immunol. 2005 Apr;35(4):1037-45.

The advantage of mucosal immunization for polysaccharide-specific memory responses in early life.

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Department of Immunology, Landspitali-University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.


The aim of vaccination is to rapidly elicit protective immunity and generate memory for sustained protection. We studied the induction and persistence of polysaccharide (PS)-specific memory in neonatal and infant mice primed with pneumococcal conjugate (Pnc1-TT) by assessing the response to native pneumococcal PS (PPS-1), the kinetics of the PPS-1-specific IgG response to a second Pnc1-TT dose and affinity maturation. A subcutaneous (s.c.) Pnc1-TT booster induced a rapid increase in PPS-1-specific IgG, indicating efficient priming for memory by a single dose of Pnc1-TT already at 1 week of age. High levels were maintained for >12 weeks. However, a PPS-1 booster induced no response in neonatal or infant mice. The adjuvant LT-K63 significantly enhanced the IgG response and affinity to Pnc1-TT by both the s.c. and the intranasal (i.n.) route in all age groups. In neonatal and infant mice, PPS-1 and LT-K63 induced a booster response only when given i.n. following either s.c. or i.n. priming with Pnc1-TT and LT-K63. In contrast, PPS-1 with or without LT-K63 administered s.c. compromised the ongoing PPS-1-specific response elicited in neonatal mice by either s.c. or i.n. priming with Pnc1-TT and LT-K63. These results demonstrate the advantage of the mucosal route for elicitation of PS-specific memory responses in early life.

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