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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jun;90(6):3534-43. Epub 2005 Mar 8.

15-Deoxy-{delta}12,14-prostaglandin j2 inhibits interleukin-1{beta}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}b in human amnion and myometrial cells: mechanisms and implications.

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Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom.


Proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins play key roles in term and preterm human labor. The expression of the prostaglandin synthetic enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and cytokines IL-1beta and IL-8 increases within the uterus at the time of labor, and each is regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). In addition to its role in driving inflammation, COX-2 may also synthesize 15-deoxy-Delta (12, 14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), an antiinflammatory cyclopentenone prostaglandin (cyPG), which acts in some cells as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). We found that PPARalpha and -gamma proteins are expressed in both amnion epithelial and myometrial cells, but synthetic PPAR agonists could not inhibit NF-kappaB activity or COX-2 expression. 15d-PGJ(2) inhibited NF-kappaB activity and COX-2 expression in both cell types. This was unaffected by a PPAR antagonist and could be mimicked by the cyPG PGA(1) but not 9,10-dihydro-15d-PGJ(2) in which the cyclopentenone ring is disrupted. This shows that, in amnion and myometrium, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity and COX-2 expression by 15d-PGJ(2) is independent of PPARs and requires the cyclopentenone ring. We further show that 15d-PGJ(2) acts at multiple levels in the NF-kappaB pathway: blocking inhibitor of kappaBalpha degradation by repressing inhibitor of kappaB kinase activation and the 26S proteasome and also repressing NF-kappaB DNA binding and phosphorylation. Our data suggest that PPARs are unlikely to play a role in the regulation of either NF-kappaB or COX-2 in human amnion and myometrium. Targeting of NF-kappaB is a potential therapeutic strategy in preterm labor. PPAR agonists are unlikely to be effective in this context, but cyPGs may have potential.

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