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J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2004 Aug;50(4):203-12.

Detection of methanogens and proteobacteria from a single cell of rumen ciliate protozoa.

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Laboratory of Animal Science, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan.


Rumen ciliate-associated bacteria and methanogenic archaea were analyzed by a 16S rRNA gene retrieved from a single cell of Polyplastron multivesiculatum, Isotricha intestinalis, and Ophryoscolex purkynjei. Rumen fluid was taken from a ruminally fistulated goat to prepare a ciliate fraction. Ciliate mixtures were incubated under mixtures of antibiotics for 48 h to eliminate extracellular bacteria. Individual cells of rumen ciliates were selected under microscopic observation after fixation with ethanol. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from each cell of three genera of ciliate. Two archaeal sequences related to Methanobrevibacter smithii were distributed to nearly all ciliate cells tested. These two methanogenic archaea were likely to be endosymbiotic methanogens commonly carried by the rumen ciliate, although some other sequences similar to the other genera were detected. A range of proteobacteria was retrieved from cells of P. multivesiculatum. Some sequences showed similarities to the previously known endosymbiotic proteobacteria. However, there were no proteobacteria that were carried by all the ciliate cells tested.

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