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Oral Dis. 2005 Mar;11(2):88-94.

The effects of chewing areca/betel quid with and without cigarette smoking on oral submucous fibrosis and oral mucosal lesions.

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Graduate Health Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.



The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk of areca/betel quid chewing with or without cigarette smoking on oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and other oral mucosal lesions.


A stratified case-control study was designed. There were in total 102 patients with oral mucosal lesions or OSF (confirmed pathologically) in the case group. OSF (n = 62) and oral mucosal lesions (n = 62) in 102 subjects were separately analyzed for men and women investigating their risks.


For OSF, people with both smoking and chewing habits had a statistically significant odds ratio (OR) 8.68 (95% CI = 1.87, 40.23). For the group of people with chewing habit only and without any lifetime cigarette smoking habit, the OR was 4.51 (95% CI = 1.20, 16.94). For other oral mucosal lesions, people with mixed habits and chewing only had also significant risks (OR = 8.37 and 3.95, respectively). For both OSF and other oral lesions, the ORs of mixed habits and chewing only were both higher in women than in men.


The areca/betel quid used in Taiwan does not contain any tobacco product. The only way of areca/betel quid could synergize with any tobacco product is through cigarette smoking. A statistically significant association with oral mucosal lesions and OSF was still found in the group of areca/betel quid chewing only.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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