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Exp Cell Res. 2005 Apr 1;304(2):380-90. Epub 2005 Jan 9.

Redox control of angiogenic factors and CD31-positive vessel-like structures in mouse embryonic stem cells after direct current electrical field stimulation.

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Department of Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.


The molecular mechanisms driving angiogenesis in tissues derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells are currently unknown. Herein we investigated the effects of direct current (DC) electrical field treatment on endothelial cell differentiation and angiogenesis of mouse ES cells. Treatment of ES cell-derived embryoid bodies with field strengths ranging from 250 V/m to 750 V/m, applied for 60 s, dose-dependently increased the capillary area staining positive for the endothelial-specific marker platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), indicating stimulation of endothelial cell differentiation and angiogenesis. Consequently, increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) within 24 h was observed. Electric field treatment raised reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation for at least 48 h, which was blunted by NADPH-oxidase inhibitors diphenylen iodonium chloride (DPI) as well as 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF), and increased the expression of NADPH-oxidase subunits p22-phox, p47-phox, p67-phox, and gp91-phox within 24 h. Electrical field treatment resulted in activation of extracellular regulated kinase 1,2 (ERK1,2), p38, as well as c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 resulted in a significant decrease in capillary areas under control conditions as well as under conditions of electrical field treatment, whereas the p38 inhibitor SB203580 was without effects. By contrast, the ERK1,2 antagonist UO126 inhibited electrical field-induced angiogenesis, whereas angiogenesis under control conditions was unimpaired. The increase in capillary areas and VEGF expression as well as activation of JNK and ERK1,2 was significantly inhibited in the presence of the free radical scavenger vitamin E underscoring the role of ROS in electrical field-induced angiogenesis of ES cells.

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