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Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2005 Mar;11(3):223-30.

Prediction and prevention of transplant-related mortality from pulmonary causes after total body irradiation and allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

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Stem Cell Allotransplant Section, Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.


Between July 1997 and August 2004, 146 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies received a T cell-depleted peripheral blood stem cell transplant from an HLA-identical sibling by using total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide conditioning regimens. Eighty-five patients received 13.6 Gy of TBI with no lung shielding, and 61 received lung shielding (total lung dose, 6-12 Gy). Ninety-four patients (65.5%) had standard-risk disease; the remainder had more advanced disease or unfavorable diagnoses. Of the 21 transplant-related deaths, 14 were from pulmonary causes (10 idiopathic pulmonary syndromes and 4 from infection) that occurred at a median of 90 days (range, 23-238 days) after transplantation. Independent risk factors for pulmonary transplant-related mortality (PTRM) were pretransplantation diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (relative risk, 5.7 for diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide <85%), smoking (relative risk, 5.0), and CD34 cell dose (relative risk, 9.4 for a CD34 dose of <5 x 10(6) cells per kilogram). Patients receiving lung shielding had significantly lower PTRM (3.3% versus 14.1%; P = .02) and better overall survival (70% +/- 6% versus 52% +/- 5%; P = .04), but lung shielding was not a significant independent factor for determining PTRM. These results suggest that pulmonary mortality after TBI-based preparative regimens is predictable and that higher CD34 cell doses can reduce the risk.

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