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Biosens Bioelectron. 2005 Apr 15;20(10):1897-902.

In vivo glucose monitoring: the clinical reality and the promise.

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  • 1Metabolic Unit, Guy's, King's and St Thomas's School of Medicine, Guy's Hospital, 5th Floor Thomas Guy House, London SE1 9RT, UK.


Glucose monitoring is an essential component of modern diabetes management. Three in vivo glucose sensors are now available for clinical use: a subcutaneously implanted amperometric enzyme electrode, a reverse iontophoresis system and a microdialysis-based device. Improvements in glucose-sensing technology continue to be sought, e.g. wired enzyme technology, viscometric affinity sensing and totally implanted glucose sensors. Non-invasive glucose sensing is the ultimate goal of glucose monitoring, but the most investigated approach, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, is presently too imprecise for clinical application. Fluorescence-based glucose sensing offers several advantages and we are investigating strategies which include NIR-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer using concanavalin A/dextran; changes in the intrinsic fluorescence of hexokinase encapsulated in sol-gel; and non-invasive glucose monitoring of cells by measuring glucose-related changes in NADP(H).

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