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J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Mar 9;53(5):1799-804.

Yield and composition of grape seed oils extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and petroleum ether: varietal effects.

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Pacific Agri-Food Research Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia, V0H1Z0 Canada.


Grape seed has a well-known potential for production of oil as a byproduct of winemaking and is currently produced as a specialty oil byproduct of wine manufacture. Seed oils from eight varieties of grapes crushed for wine production in British Columbia were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCE) and petroleum ether (PE). Oil yields by SCE ranged from 5.85 +/- 0.33 to 13.6 +/- 0.46% (w/w), whereas PE yields ranged from 6.64 +/- 0.16 to 11.17 +/- 0.05% (+/- is standard deviation). The oils contained alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tocopherols and alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols, with gamma-tocotrienol being most important quantitatively. In both SCE- and PE-extracted oils, phytosterols were a prominent feature of the unsaponifiable fraction, with beta-sitosterol quantitatively most important with both extractants. Total phytosterol extraction was higher with SCE than with PE in seven of eight variety extractions. Fatty acid composition of oils from all varieties tested, and from both extraction methods, indicated linoleic acid as the major component ranging from 67.56 to 73.23% of the fatty acids present, in agreement with literature reports.

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