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J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Mar 9;53(5):1387-92.

Identification and quantification of polyphenolic compounds in Longan (Euphoria longana Lam.) fruit.

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Laboratory of Pharmacology, Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI), Vipavadee-Rangsit Highway, Laksi, Bangkok 10210, Thailand.


Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of some chronic diseases including various forms of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The health-promoting potential of these foods may be due, in part, to the phytochemical bioactive compounds present in the plants. Fruit of Euphoria longana Lam. (longan) are consumed throughout Asia and are a major crop in Thailand. In the present study phytochemicals were extracted with 70% methanol from peel, pulp, and seed tissues of longan fruit, and the major components were identified as gallic acid, corilagin (an ellagitannin), and ellagic acid. A high-through-put reversed phase HPLC method was developed to determine the content of these three compounds in different parts of the longan fruit and among different cultivars. The analyses showed that there was a large variation in the contents of gallic acid, corilagin, and ellagic acid in different plant tissues and cultivars. Seed contained the highest levels of the three phenolics, and pulp contained the lowest. Among commercial cultivars, Biewkiew and Edor contained the highest levels of gallic and ellagic acid while Srichompoo contained the highest content of corilagin. These three cultivars may be used in directed breeding and cultivation programs and to develop concentrated longan seed extracts to promote good health. Utilization of this byproduct material will support the use of thousands of tons of waste longan seeds after the production of canned longan pulp.

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