Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Mar;186:215-21.

Nicotine dependence and symptoms in schizophrenia: naturalistic study of complex interactions.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Institute of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Grenada, Av. Madrid 11, E-18071 Granada, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Smoking may have a beneficial effect on either schizophrenic symptoms or antipsychotic side-effects, but studies are hampered by the lack of control of confounding factors.

AIMS:

To explore the self-medication hypothesis in a large sample of stable out-patients with schizophrenia.

METHOD:

Symptoms, assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and number of hospitalisations were compared in 250 out-patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia classified into three categories: highly dependent smokers, mildly dependent smokers and non-smokers. Log-linear analysis was used to control for potential confounding and interacting variables.

RESULTS:

High PANSS total scores and positive symptoms were less frequent in mildly dependent smokers than in non-smokers or highly dependent smokers. The highly dependent smokers had the worst outcome.

CONCLUSIONS:

The data do not generally support the self-medication hypothesis but rather suggest a complex interaction between nicotine dependence and nicotine dependence and schizophrenic symptoms.

PMID:
15738502
DOI:
10.1192/bjp.186.3.215
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Cambridge University Press
Loading ...
Support Center