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Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(1):91-7.

Australian sweet lupin flour addition reduces the glycaemic index of a white bread breakfast without affecting palatability in healthy human volunteers.

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School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, Victoria, Australia.


The addition of some legume ingredients to bread has been associated with effects on glycaemic, insulinaemic and satiety responses that may be beneficial in controlling type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity. However, the effect of Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) flour (ASLF) is unknown. This investigation examined the effect of adding ASLF to standard white bread on post-meal glycaemic, insulinaemic and satiety responses and palatability in healthy subjects. Using a randomised, single-blind, cross-over design, 11 subjects consumed one breakfast of ASLF bread and two of standard white bread > or =7 days apart after fasting overnight. Each breakfast also included margarine, jam, and tea with milk and contained 50 g available carbohydrate. On each test day, blood samples were taken after fasting, then several times over 2 hours post-prandially, and analysed for plasma glucose and serum insulin. Subjects rated breakfast palatability and perception of satiety, in the fasting state and over 3 hours post-prandially, after which food intake from an ad libitum buffet and for the rest of the day was recorded. Incremental areas under the curves for glucose, insulin and satiety, glycaemic index, insulinaemic index and satiety index were calculated. ASLF addition to the breakfast reduced its glycaemic index (mean +/-SEM; ASLF bread breakfast = 74.0 +/-9.6. Standard white bread breakfast = 100, P=0.022), raised its insulinaemic index (ASLF bread breakfast = 127.7 +/-12.0. Standard white bread breakfast = 100, P=0.046), but did not affect palatability, satiety or food intake. ASLF addition resulted in a palatable breakfast; however, the potential benefits of the lowered glycaemic index may be eclipsed by the increased insulinaemic index.

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