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Vision Res. 2005 May;45(10):1285-96. Epub 2004 Dec 16.

Visual and spatial symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, Boston University, 648 Beacon St., 2nd Floor, Boston, MA 02215, USA.


The interaction of visual/visuospatial and motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) was investigated by means of a 31-item self-report questionnaire. The majority of 81 non-demented patients reported problems on non-motor tasks that depended on visual or visuospatial abilities. Over a third reported visual hallucinations, double vision and difficulty estimating spatial relations. Freezing of gait was associated with visual hallucinations, double vision and contrast sensitivity deficits. Visual strategies frequently were employed to overcome freezing. The results underscore the importance of investigating visual and visuospatial impairments in PD and their relation to motor symptoms, in order to help patients develop successful compensatory strategies.

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