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J Virol. 2005 Mar;79(6):3329-38.

Selection of resistance in protease inhibitor-experienced, human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects failing lopinavir- and ritonavir-based therapy: mutation patterns and baseline correlates.

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Department R47D, Building AP52N, Abbott Laboratories, 200 Abbott Park Rd., Abbott Park, IL 60064-6217, USA.


The selection of in vivo resistance to lopinavir was characterized by analyzing the longitudinal isolates from 54 protease inhibitor-experienced subjects who either experienced incomplete virologic response or viral rebound subsequent to initial response while on treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir in Phase II and III studies. The evolution of incremental resistance to lopinavir (emergence of new mutation[s] and/or at least a twofold increase in phenotypic resistance compared to baseline isolates) was highly dependent on the baseline phenotype and genotype. Among the subjects demonstrating evolution of lopinavir resistance, mutations at positions 82, 54, and 46 in human immunodeficiency virus protease emerged frequently, suggesting that these mutations are important for conferring high-level resistance. Less common mutations, such as L33F, I50V, and V32I together with I47V/A, were also selected; however, new mutations at positions 84, 90, and 71 were not observed. The emergence of incremental resistance contrasts greatly with the low incidence of resistance observed after initiating lopinavir-ritonavir therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients, suggesting that partial resistance accumulated during prior protease inhibitor therapy can compromise the genetic barrier to resistance to lopinavir-ritonavir. The emergence of incremental resistance was uncommon in subjects whose baseline isolates contained eight or more mutations associated with lopinavir resistance and/or displayed >60-fold-reduced susceptibility to lopinavir, providing insight into suitable upper genotypic and phenotypic breakpoints for lopinavir-ritonavir.

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