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Clin Nephrol. 2005 Feb;63(2):98-105.

Peripheral vascular disease and serum phosphorus in hemodialysis: a nested case-control study.

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Epidemiology Unit and Brunner Institute of Medical Research, Holon, Israel.



Serum phosphorus (P) and the product of serum calcium x serum P (Ca x P), are frequently elevated in end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Elevated P and Ca x P have been associated with vascular calcification in dialysis patients.


[corrected] To examine the role of P and Ca x P as risk factors for incident peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in HD patients with pre-existing CVD.


This nested case-control study is drawn from the 11 incident PVD events reported in the cohort of the Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease (SPACE): a randomized placebo-controlled trial. PVD was defined clinically and confirmed ultrasonographically. Each individual with a PVD event was matched for SPACE treatment group (vitamin E or placebo), age (in 4-year categories) and gender with two individuals who had no CVD end point during the follow-up period.


Serum P and Ca x P levels were significantly higher in PVD patients than in controls. In univariate logistic regression analysis, only serum P predicted PVD in this population (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.07 - 3.81, p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, adjustment was made for variables dissimilar by PVD status including underlying renal disease, diabetes, smoking, history of angina pectoris, prescription for vitamin D3, erythropoietin, calcium channel blockers and aspirin. In this model, serum P remained the only significant predictor of incident PVD (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.01 - 5.74, p = 0.04).


Findings of the present study are consistent with a role for serum P and Ca x P in the pathogenesis of PVD in HD patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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