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Kekkaku. 2004 Nov;79(11):659-67.

[Molecular pathogenesis in tuberculosis complicated with AIDS].

[Article in Japanese]

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  • 1Bioscience Medical Research Center, Niigata Medical Dental Hospital, Niigata, Japan.


HIV-1 infection is a major cause of worldwide epidemic of tuberculosis. There is increasing clinical evidence that coinfection with M. tuberculosis accelerates progression of AIDS. We found that, in vivo, HIV-1 load and mutation increase in involved lung segments in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We also reported that Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulates HIV-1 replication by enhancing transcription on the 5' LTR in a macrophage cell line, THP-1, in vitro. In contrast, HIV-1 replication is suppressed by M. tuberculosis infection of monocytes derived macrophages (MDM) or differentiated monocytic THP-1 cells. We observed that HIV-1 5' LTR function was repressed in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells after co-infection with M. tuberculosis. Point mutations in C/EBP beta binding domains of the HIV-1 LTR negative regulatory element (NRE) abolished promoter repression. Monocyte-derived macrophages and differentiated THP-1 cells increased expression of the 16kDa inhibitory form of C/EBP after M. tuberculosis co-infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage cells obtained from normal controls and alveolar macrophages from uninflamed lung of tuberculosis patients also expressed the 16kDa inhibitory form of C/EBP. However, alveolar macrophages from lung segments involved with pulmonary tuberculosis had markedly reduced C/EBP expression. These data suggest that 16kDa isoform of C/EBP plays an important role for the control of HIV-1 replication in macrophages. We propose derepression of HIV-1 LTR mediated transcription as one mechanism for enhanced HIV-1 replication observed in pulmonary tuberculosis. Since the cellular immune response in pulmonary tuberculosis requires lymphocyte/macrophage interaction, a model system was developed in which lymphocytes were added to AM. Contact between lymphocytes and AM reduced inhibitory C/EBP beta, activated NF-kappaB and enhanced HIV-1 replication. If contact between lymphocytes and macrophages was prevented, inhibitory C/EBP beta expression was maintained and the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) was not maximally stimulated although NF-kappaB was activated. Antibodies which cross-linked macrophage expressed B-7, VCAM and CD-40 were used mimic lymphocyte contact. Cross-linking antibodies abolished inhibitory C/EBP beta expression; however, the HIV-1 LTR was not maximally stimulated and NF-kappaB was not activated. Maximal HIV-1 LTR stimulation required both lymphocyte derived soluble factors and cross-linking of macrophage expressed co-stimulatory molecules. These results demonstrate that neither contact nor soluble factor(s) are sufficient to maximally enhance HIV-1 LTR activity in macrophages. Contact between activated lymphocytes and macrophages is necessary to downregulate inhibitory C/EBP beta, thereby derepressing the HIV-1 LTR. Lymphocyte derived soluble factor(s) activate NF-kappaB, further enhancing the HIV-1 LTR.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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