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Planta Med. 2005 Feb;71(2):99-107.

Implication of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibition in the vasorelaxant activity of the citrus-fruits flavonoid (+/-)-naringenin.

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Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (La Coruña), Spain.


The potential vasorelaxant, antioxidant and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitory effects of the citrus-fruit flavonoids naringin and (+/-)-naringenin were comparatively studied for the first time in this work. (+/-)-Naringenin (1 microM - 0.3 mM) did not affect the contractile response induced by okadaic acid (OA, 1 microM). However, (+/-)-naringenin relaxed, in a concentration-dependent manner, the contractions elicited by phenylephrine (PHE, 1 microM) or by a high extracellular KCl concentration (60 mM) in intact rat aortic rings. Mechanical removal of endothelium and/or pretreatment of aorta rings with glibenclamide (GB, 10 microM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) did not significantly modify the vasorelaxant effects of this flavanone. (+/-)-Naringenin (10 microM - 0.1 mM) did not alter the basal uptake of 4) Ca2+ but decreased the influx of 45Ca2+ induced by PHE and KCl in endothelium-containing and endothelium-denuded rat aorta. (+/-)-Naringenin (10 microM - 0.1 mM) was ineffective to scavenge superoxide radicals (O*2-) generated by the hypoxanthine (HX)-xanthine oxidase (XO) system and/or to inhibit XO activity. (+/-)-Naringenin (0.1 mM) significantly increased the production of cGMP and cAMP decreased by PHE (1 microM) and high KCl (60 mM) in cultured rat aortic myocytes. (+/-)-Naringenin preferentially inhibited calmodulin (CaM)-activated PDE1, PDE4 and PDE5 isolated from bovine aorta with IC50 values of about 45 microM, 60 microM and 68 microM, respectively. In contrast, the 7-rhamnoglucoside of (+/-)-naringenin, naringin (1 microM - 0.3 mM), was totally inactive in all experiments. These results indicate that the vasorelaxant effects of (+/-)-naringenin seem to be basically related to the inhibition of PDE1, PDE4 and PDE5 activities.

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