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Int J Clin Oncol. 2005 Feb;10(1):20-5.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the bilharzial and non-bilharzial urinary bladder: a review of etiological features, natural history, and management.

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Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt.


Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, though uncommon in Europe and the United States, is the most common variety of bladder tumor in countries where urinary bilharziasis prevails. A great controversy still exists regarding its natural history and management. Here, we review the literature of bilharzial and nonbilharzial squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, focusing on large series. Our aim was to gather most of the published data about this disease entity, report it in a systematic comparative review, and attempt to identify the adverse features and variables behind its dismal outcome. The conclusions are that squamous cell carcinoma, whether bilharzial or nonbilharzial, has distinctive clinicopathological features, different from those of the transitional cell variety. These tumors usually present in advanced (muscle-invasive) stages. Pelvic nodal metastases are not common, and the incidence of distant metastases is less than that reported with transitional cell carcinoma. Local treatment, including cystectomy and adjunctive radiotherapy, is the most acceptable way of treating such tumors.

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