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J Biol Chem. 2005 May 13;280(19):19270-80. Epub 2005 Feb 22.

Functional dissection of an AP-2 beta2 appendage-binding sequence within the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein.

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  • 1Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA.


The autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) protein plays a critical role in regulating plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Inherited defects in ARH lead to a hypercholesterolemia that closely phenocopies that caused by a defective LDL receptor. The elevated serum LDL-cholesterol levels typical of ARH patients and the pronounced accumulation of the LDL receptor at the cell surface of hepatocytes in ARH-null mice argue that ARH operates by promoting the internalization of the LDL receptor within clathrin-coated vesicles. ARH contains an amino-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding domain that associates physically with the LDL receptor internalization sequence and with phosphoinositides. The carboxyl-terminal half of ARH contains a clathrin-binding sequence and a separate AP-2 adaptor binding region providing a plausible mechanism for how ARH can act as an endocytic adaptor or CLASP (clathrin-associated sorting protein) to couple LDL receptors with the clathrin machinery. Because the interaction with AP-2 is highly selective for the independently folded appendage domain of the beta2 subunit, we have characterized the ARH beta2 appendage-binding sequence in detail. Unlike the known alpha appendage-binding motifs, ARH requires an extensive sequence tract to bind the beta appendage with comparably high affinity. A minimal 16-residue sequence functions autonomously and depends upon ARH residues Asp253, Phe259, Leu262, and Arg266. We suggested that biased beta subunit engagement by ARH and the only other beta2 appendage selective adaptor, beta-arrestin, promotes efficient incorporation of this mechanistically distinct subset of CLASPs into clathrin-coated buds.

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