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Microbiol Immunol. 2005;49(2):155-65.

Interleukin-4 up-regulates T-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription in primary CD4+ CD38+ T-lymphocyte subset.

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1
Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

Abstract

The capacity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to infect resting cells and to produce progeny particles may contribute significantly to its pathogenicity in vivo. We previously reported that primary culture of resting CD4(+) CD38(+) T-lymphocyte subset had higher production rate of CXCR4-using (X4) HIV-1 than CD4(+) CD38(-) subset. Interleukin (IL)-4 highly contributed to the up-regulation of the X4 virus production in the CD38(+) subset. Here, we show evidences that IL-4 treatment of both resting CD38(+) and CD38(-) subsets allowed the adsorption, entry, and integration of X4 virus at similar rates, while the following viral transcription rate was significantly lower in the CD38(-) than CD38(+) subset. Treatment of the CD38 subsets with IL-4 or phytohemagglutinin revealed no association of X4 virus replication ability in the subsets with classic T-cell activation or proliferation. Interestingly, the activator protein (AP)-1 was significantly activated in the CD38(+) subset after IL-4 treatment, while both nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT)-6 were activated in the IL-4-treated CD38(-) and CD38(-) subsets at similar levels. Thus, IL-4-dependent X4 HIV-1 transcription occurs efficiently in the CD38(+) but not CD38(-) subset of CD4(+) population and AP-1 could play a significant role on viral transcription, leading to the up-regulated X4 virus production in the CD38(+) subset.

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