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Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2005 Mar;21(1):173-204.

Procedures and surgeries of the teat.

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Department of Clinical Sciences, Université de Montréal, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, C.P. 5000, St Hyacinthe, Québec, J2S 7C6, Canada.


Injuries to the end of the teat are frequent and frustrating to treat. Treatment of these injuries evolved from being aggressive using teat knives to a more conservative approach employing rest nonreactive teat inserts. The process of milking seems simple, but it involves fine-tuned mechanics. Teat fibrosis, even when small, has a disastrous effect on the production life of an animal. There is no place for error; any surgical intervention should be precise and aim for perfection. Medical imaging techniques and minimally invasive surgery help the surgeon to make the best decision. Finally, more investigation is needed to treat varicose veins to understand the origin and develop better treatment. Teat injuries have drawn more attention more recently. Surgical interventions are better planned, and blind treatment with unsuitable teat knives is avoided. Treatment of superficial of full-thickness teat lacerations does not require a high level of anatomic or surgical knowledge, although basic surgical principles should be applied. Hemostasis, delicate débridgement and tissue handling, and appropriate suture materials and patterns are key to success. Appropriate sedation, anesthesia, and analgesia are essential to achieve this goal and should never be neglected.

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