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JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2005 Jan-Feb;29(1):44-7.

Enteral feeding preserves gut Th-2 cytokines despite mucosal cellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade.

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Veterans Administration Surgical Services, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital Madison, Wisconsin, USA.



Parenteral nutrition (PN) decreases gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the intestinal IgA stimulating cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in gut homogenates, intestinal IgA levels and the expression of Peyer patch (PP) mucosal cellular adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1), an adhesion molecule found on the high endothelial venules of PP and other tissues. IL-4 in PP stimulates MAdCAM expression in vitro. MAdCAM-1 blockade with MECA-367 reduces GALT cell populations to PN levels but maintains intestinal IgA levels if the animals are chow fed. This study compares IL-4 levels in PP of chow and PN fed mice and measures the effects of MAdCAM blockade on IL-4 and IL-10 levels in gut homogenates of chow fed mice. We hypothesized that in vivo IL-4 levels drop in PP of PN fed mice and IL-4 and IL-10 levels are maintained after MAdCAM-1 blockade in chow fed mice.


Exp 1: 18 mice received chow or PN for 5 days to determine PP IL-4 levels. Exp 2: 44 mice were randomized to chow + control monoclonal antibody (mAb), chow + MECA-367 (anti-MAdCAM-1 mAb) or PN for 4 days before measurement of IL-4 and IL-10 levels in gut homogenates.


Exp 1: IL-4 levels in vivo were lower in PP of PN-fed mice than chow fed mice (92.0 +/- 15.1 pg/mL vs 251.1 +/- 14.8, p = .0003). Exp 2: IL-4 levels were significantly higher in chow + control mAb (187.1 +/- 44.1 pg/mL) and chow + MECA-367 (110.9 +/- 19.1 pg/mL) groups than PN mice (21.8 +/- 30.6 pg/mL, p < .02 vs chow + control or chow + MECA-367). IL-10 levels were significantly lower with PN (23.1 +/- 40.9 pg/mL) with chow+control (174.0 +/- 22.2 pg/mL p < .01), or chow + MECA-367 (181.7 +/- 23.1 pg/mL, p < .02 vs PN).


PN-feeding reduces in vivo IL-4 levels in PP (consistent with lowered MAdCAM-1 expression) and IL-4 and IL-10 levels in gut homogenates compared with chow. Despite MAdCAM-1 blockade, enteral feeding preserved gut IL-4 levels and increased IL-10 levels consistent with preserved IgA levels.

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