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Oncology. 2004;67(5-6):460-70.

Centrosome hyperamplification and chromosomal damage after exposure to radiation.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, Kanazawa Medical University, Daigaku Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan. kawamura@kanazawa-med.ac.jp

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

In order to elucidate the effects of radiation on centrosome hyperamplification (CH), we examined the centrosome duplication cycle in KK47 bladder cancer cells following irradiation.

METHODS:

KK47 cells were irradiated with various doses of radiation and were examined for CH immunostaining for gamma-tubulin.

RESULTS:

Nearly all control cells contained one or two centrosomes, and mitotic cells displayed typical bipolar spindles. The centrosome replication cycle is well regulated in KK47. Twenty-four hours after 5-Gy irradiation, approximately 80% of irradiated cells were arrested in G2 phase, and at 48 h after irradiation, 56.9% of cells contained more than two centrosomes. Laser scanning cytometry performed 48 h after irradiation showed the following two pathways: (1) unequal distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells, or (2) failure to undergo cytokinesis, resulting in polyploidy. With mitotic collection, M-phase cells with CH could be divided into G1 cells with micronuclei and polyploidal cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed clear signs of chromosomal instability (CIN) at 48 h after irradiation. The present study had two major findings: (1) continual duplication of centrosomes occurred in the cell cycle-arrested cells upon irradiation, leading to centrosome amplification; (2) cytokinesis failure was due to aberrant mitotic spindle formation caused by the presence of amplified centrosomes. Abnormal mitosis with amplified centrosomes was detected in the accumulating G2/M population after irradiation, showing that this amplification of centrosomes was not caused by failure to undergo cytokinesis, but rather that abnormal mitosis resulting from amplification of centrosomes leads to cytokinesis block.

CONCLUSION:

These results suggest that CH is a critical event leading to CIN following exposure to radiation.

PMID:
15714003
DOI:
10.1159/000082931
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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