Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May;90(5):2556-62. Epub 2005 Feb 15.

The influence of cigarette smoking on antenatal growth, birth size, and the insulin-like growth factor axis.

Author information

1
Centre for Human Growth and Maturation at the London Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, University College London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in birth size. Very few studies have collated changes in fetal biometry, neonatal anthropometry, biochemical factors involved in fetal growth, and measures of uterine and umbilical blood flow.

METHODS:

We related smoking status in 1650 low-risk, singleton Caucasian pregnancies delivering at term to measures of fetal growth, uterine and umbilical artery blood flow, placental appearance, birth size, and cord concentrations of IGF-I and -II and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3.

RESULTS:

Mothers who smoked in pregnancy were younger (P < 0.001) and shorter (P = 0.03) and from lower socioeconomic groups (P < 0.001). Mean umbilical artery blood flow at 20 wk gestation was not associated with smoking status but was significantly higher in smokers at 30 wk (P = 0.006). Uterine artery blood flow was unaffected. Smoking was associated with an increase in the percentage of abnormal placentas in a dose-dependent manner and with a 3.1-fold increased risk (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.3-7.6) of abnormal umbilical artery blood flow (P = 0.009). Smoking was associated with a reduction in fetal femur length (P = 0.005) and abdominal circumference as well as birth weight, length, and head circumference but not skinfold thickness. Cord plasma concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were lower in the babies of mothers who had smoked (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively).

CONCLUSION:

We concluded that maternal smoking is associated with an altered placental appearance on ultrasonography, increased umbilical artery blood flow resistance, and a reduction in longitudinal and intraabdominal organ growth. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 along with measures of birth size but not markers of body fat are reduced, suggesting smoking results in a reduction in organ size and function.

PMID:
15713720
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2004-1674
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center