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Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Mar;25(5):1879-90.

The DEAD-box protein DP103 (Ddx20 or Gemin-3) represses orphan nuclear receptor activity via SUMO modification.

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Department of Physiology, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, Graduate Program in Biological Sciences, Mission Bay Campus, University of California, San Francisco, Box 0444, San Francisco, CA 94143-2611, USA.


Structural analysis of nuclear receptor subfamily V orphan nuclear receptors suggests that ligand-independent mechanisms must regulate this subclass of receptors. Here, we report that steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) and liver receptor homolog 1 are repressed via posttranslational SUMO modification at conserved lysines within the hinge domain. Indeed, mutating these lysines or adding the SUMO isopeptidase SENP1 dramatically increased both native and Gal4-chimera receptor activities. The mechanism by which SUMO conjugation attenuates SF-1 activity was found to be largely histone deacetylase independent and was unaffected by the AF2 corepressor Dax1. Instead, our data suggest that SUMO-mediated repression involves direct interaction of the DEAD-box protein DP103 with sumoylated SF-1. Of potential E3-SUMO ligase candidates, PIASy and PIASxalpha strongly promoted SF-1 sumoylation, and addition of DP103 enhanced both PIAS-dependent receptor sumoylation and SF-1 relocalization to discrete nuclear bodies. Taken together, we propose that DEAD-box RNA helicases are directly coupled to transcriptional repression by protein sumoylation.

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