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Ultrasound Med Biol. 2005 Feb;31(2):143-65.

A review of calibration techniques for freehand 3-D ultrasound systems.

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Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QUE, Canada.

Erratum in

  • Ultrasound Med Biol. 2005 Apr;31(4):587.

Corrected and republished in


Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound (US) is an emerging new technology with numerous clinical applications. Ultrasound probe calibration is an obligatory step to build 3-D volumes from 2-D images acquired in a freehand US system. The role of calibration is to find the mathematical transformation that converts the 2-D coordinates of pixels in the US image into 3-D coordinates in the frame of reference of a position sensor attached to the US probe. This article is a comprehensive review of what has been published in the field of US probe calibration for 3-D US. The article covers the topics of tracking technologies, US image acquisition, phantom design, speed of sound issues, feature extraction, least-squares minimization, temporal calibration, calibration evaluation techniques and phantom comparisons. The calibration phantoms and methods have also been classified in tables to give a better overview of the existing methods.

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