Send to

Choose Destination
J Immunol. 2005 Feb 15;174(4):2288-96.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 promotes microglial activation, proliferation, and matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated neuron death.

Author information

Department of Neurology, University of California, and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA.


Activated microglia contribute to cell death in ischemic and neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS. Microglial activation is regulated in part by NF-kappaB, and the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) enhances NF-kappaB binding to DNA. In this study, the role of PARP-1 in microglia-mediated neurotoxicity was assessed using microglia from wild-type (wt) and PARP-1-/- mice. Cultured microglia were incubated with TNF-alpha, a cytokine that is up-regulated in many neurological disorders. When stimulated with TNF-alpha, wt microglia proliferated, underwent morphological changes characteristic of activation, and killed neurons placed in coculture. The effects of TNF-alpha were markedly attenuated both in PARP-1-/- microglia and in wt microglia treated with the PARP enzymatic inhibitor 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinyl)butoxy]-1(2h)-isoquinolinone. These effects were also blocked by (E)-3-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)-2-propenenenitrile, which inhibits translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus. TNF-alpha also up-regulated microglial release of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an enzyme with potential neurotoxic properties that is transcriptionally regulated by NF-kappaB. This up-regulation was blocked in PARP-1-/- microglia and in wt microglia by the PARP inhibitor 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinyl)butoxy]-1(2h)-isoquinolinone. Microglia from MMP-9-/- mice were used to evaluate the contribution of MMP-9 to microglial neurotoxicity. MMP-9-/- microglia treated with TNF-alpha showed substantially reduced neurotoxicity relative to the wt microglia. TNF-alpha-stimulated wt microglia treated with the MMP inhibitor ilomastat also showed reduced neurotoxicity. These findings suggest that PARP-1 activation is required for both TNF-alpha-induced microglial activation and the neurotoxicity resulting from TNF-alpha-induced MMP-9 release.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center