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Kidney Int. 2005 Mar;67(3):1142-51.

H-NMR-based metabolic signatures of mild and severe ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidney transplants.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Biomedical MRI/MRS, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA.



Severe ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is a risk factor for delayed graft function. Delayed graft function remains difficult to predict, and it currently relies primarily on serum creatinine (SCr), urine output, and occasionally on graft biopsy. (1)H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) based metabolomics was used to establish IR-specific metabolic markers in both blood and kidney tissue. These markers were compared to SCr and graft histology.


Male Lewis rats were used for kidney transplantation. Two cold ischemia (CI) groups (24- and 42-hour) and two transplantation groups [after 24 (TX24) and after 42 hours (TX42) of CI] were compared to a control group. Whole blood and kidney tissue were collected for further analysis.


SCr levels taken 24 hours after transplantation were 1.6 +/- 0.12 mg/dL (TX24) and 2.1 +/- 0.5 mg/dL (TX42), (P= n.s.). Histology samples revealed mild injury in the TX24 group and severe injury in the TX42 group. A significantly decreased level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and elevated levels of allantoin, a marker of oxidative stress, was found in the renal tissue. In the blood, both trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a marker of renal medullary injury, and allantoin were significantly increased. Allantoin levels were low in both the control and CI groups. Levels were significantly increased after reperfusion (control 0.02 +/- 0.03 micromol/mL, TX24 1.13 +/- 0.22, and TX42 1.89 +/- 0.38, P < 0.001), and correlated with cold ischemia time (r= 0.96) and TMAO (r= 0.94).


The (1)H-NMR metabolic profiles of both the mild and severe IR groups revealed significant changes consistent with graft histology, while the SCr did not.

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