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Phys Rev Lett. 2005 Jan 28;94(3):030501. Epub 2005 Jan 25.

Experimental demonstration of a nondestructive controlled-NOT quantum gate for two independent photon qubits.

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Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, People's Republic of China.


Universal logic gates for two quantum bits (qubits) form an essential ingredient of quantum information processing. However, photons, one of the best candidates for qubits, suffer from a lack of strong nonlinear coupling, which is required for quantum logic operations. Here we show how this drawback can be overcome by reporting a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of a nondestructive controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate for two independent photons using only linear optical elements in conjunction with single-photon sources and conditional dynamics. Moreover, we exploit the CNOT gate to discriminate all four Bell states in a teleportation experiment.

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