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Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2005 Jan;71(1 Pt 2):016408. Epub 2005 Jan 14.

Measurement of 2l-nl' x-ray transitions from approximately 1 microm Kr clusters irradiated by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses.

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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-473, Livermore, California 94550, USA.


X-ray line emission from 2l-nl' transitions in Ne-like Kr and nearby ions has been observed from approximately 1 microm Kr clusters irradiated by fs-scale laser pulses at the JAERI facility in Kyoto, Japan. The incident laser intensity reached 10(19) W/cm2, with pulse energies from 50 to 300 mJ and pulse durations from 30 to 500 fs. The dependence of the x-ray spectral features and intensity on the incident laser intensity is rather weak, indicating that the 1-2 ps cluster lifetimes limit the number of ions beyond Ne-like Kr that can be produced by collisional ionization. Lines from F- to Al-like Kr emitted from the cluster plasmas have been identified using data from the relativistic multiconfiguration flexible atomic code. A collisional-radiative model based on these data has been constructed and used to determine that the cluster plasma has electron densities near 10(22) cm(-3), temperatures of a few hundred eV, and hot electron fractions of a few percent.

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