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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Jul;289(1):H466-76. Epub 2005 Feb 4.

Cardiac-specific blockade of NF-kappaB in cardiac pathophysiology: differences between acute and chronic stimuli in vivo.

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Dept. of Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics, 231 Albert Sabin Way, ML0575, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0575, USA.


The role of NF-kappaB in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology has been difficult to delineate due to the inability to specifically block NF-kappaB signaling in the heart. Cardiac-specific transgenic models have recently been developed that repress NF-kappaB activation by preventing phosphorylation at specific serine residues of the inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB) protein isoform IkappaBalpha. However, these models are unable to completely block NF-kappaB because of a second signaling pathway that regulates NF-kappaB function via Tyr42 phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha. We report the development of transgenic (3M) mouse lines that express the mutant IkappaBalpha(S32A,S36A,Y42F) in a cardiac-specific manner. NF-kappaB activation in cardiomyopathic TNF-1.6 mice is completely blocked by the 3M transgene but only partially blocked (70-80%) by the previously described double-mutant 2M [IkappaBalpha(S32A,S36A)] transgene, which demonstrates the action of two proximal pathways for NF-kappaB activation in TNF-alpha-induced cardiomyopathy. In contrast, after acute stimuli including administration of TNF-alpha and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), NF-kappaB activation is blocked in both 2M and 3M transgenic mice. This result suggests that phosphorylation of the regulatory Ser32 and Ser36 predominantly mediates NF-kappaB activation in these situations. We show that infarct size after I/R is reduced by 70% in 3M transgenic mice, which conclusively demonstrates that NF-kappaB is involved in I/R injury. In summary, we have engineered novel transgenic mice that allow us to distinguish two major proximal pathways for NF-kappaB activation. Our results demonstrate that the serine and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways are differentially activated during different pathophysiological processes (cardiomyopathy and I/R injury) and that NF-kappaB contributes to infarct development after I/R.

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