Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2005 Apr;21(1):15-32.

Second-intention repair in the horse and pony and management of exuberant granulation tissue.

Author information

Woumarec, Hamsterlaan 4, 6705 CT Wageningen, The Netherlands.


Second-intention repair is faster in ponies than in horses and faster in body wounds than in limb wounds. To a large extent, the differences between horses and ponies can be explained by differences in the local inflammatory response, which are a result of the functional capacity of leukocytes. In ponies, leukocytes produce more inflammatory mediators,resulting in better local defense, faster cellular debridement, and a faster transition to the repair phases, with more wound contraction. In horses,leukocytes produce fewer mediators, initiating a weak inflammatory response, which becomes chronic. This inhibits wound contraction and gives rise to the formation of exuberant granulation tissue. The anatomic environment that influences the inflammatory response and wound contraction most probably determines the differences between body and limb wounds. In body wounds, better perfusion results in faster initiation of the inflammatory phase. The weaker local resistance results in a greater degree of contraction. In limb wounds, particularly of horses, the initial inflammatory response is weak and wound contraction is restricted. Both factors give rise to chronic inflammation, which further inhibits wound contraction and promotes exuberant granulation tissue. The high incidence of exuberant granulation tissue in limb wounds of horses can thus be explained by the chronicity of the inflammatory response as well as by the common use of bandages during treatment. Chronic inflammation is often not recognized as a cause of exuberant granulation tissue. It must be prevented and treated to promote the healing process. Bandages and casts stimulate the formation of exuberant granulation tissue; however, they are advantageous in many respects and play an important role in support of the overall healing process.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center