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Biochemistry. 2005 Feb 8;44(5):1719-30.

Activation, inhibition, and destabilization of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase by detergents.

Author information

1
Department of Life Sciences, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 49, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark.

Abstract

Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis of triglycerides and are activated at the water-lipid interface. Thus, their interaction with amphiphiles such as detergents is relevant for an understanding of their enzymatic mechanism. In this study, we have characterized the effect of nonionic, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic detergents on the enzymatic activity and thermal stability of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TlL). For all detergents, low concentrations enhance the activity of TlL toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate by more than an order of magnitude; at higher detergent concentrations, the activity declines, leveling off close to the value measured in the absence of detergent. Surprisingly, these phenomena mainly involve monomeric detergent, as activation and inhibition occur well below the cmc for the nonionic and zwitterionic detergents. For anionic and cationic detergents, activation straddles the monomer-micelle transition. The data can be fitted to a three state interaction model, comprising free TlL in the absence of detergent, an activated complex with TlL at low detergent concentrations, and an enzyme-inhibiting complex at higher concentrations. For detergents with the same headgroup, there is an excellent correspondence between carbon chain length and ability to activate and inhibit TlL. However, the headgroup and number of chains also modulate these effects, dividing the detergents overall into three broad groups with rising activation and inhibition ability, namely, anionic and cationic detergents, nonionic and single-chain zwitterionic detergents, and double-chain zwitterionic detergents. As expected, only anionic and cationic detergents lead to a significant decrease in lipase thermal stability. Since nonionic detergents activate TlL without destabilizing the protein, activation/inhibition and destabilization must be independent processes. We conclude that lipase-detergent interactions occur at many independent levels and are governed by a combination of general and structurally specific interactions. Furthermore, activation of TlL by detergents apparently does not involve the classical interfacial activation phenomenon as monomeric detergent molecules are in most cases responsible for the observed increase in activity.

PMID:
15683256
DOI:
10.1021/bi0479757
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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