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Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005 Jan;24(1):129-35.

Uptake and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins in the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis: a dynamic model.

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Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.


Uptake and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins in the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis, were investigated by exposing the mussels to dinoflagellates (Alexandrium tamarense, ACTI01) under laboratory conditions for 8 d, then depurating them in clean seawater for 14 d. First-order linear differential equations were set up for five tissue compartments: Viscera, gill, hepatopancreas, adductor muscle, and foot. The solutions to these equations were used to fit the experimental data. We then estimated the parameters governing the model, which depend on the elimination rate from each compartment and the transfer coefficient between compartments. An assumption of the model is that the gills transport the dinoflagellates directly to the mouth and then to the viscera, where the ingested cells are broken down, releasing the toxins. The toxins absorbed are transferred to other tissues. During the uptake phase, the transfer coefficients from viscera to gill, hepatopancreas, adductor muscle, and foot were 0.03, 0.24, 0.01, and 0.004 per day, respectively. During the depuration phase, the transfer coefficients were 0.01, 0, 0.01, and 0.003 per day, respectively. In terms of the anatomical distribution of N-sulfocarbamoyl-11-hydroxysulfate (C2) toxins in various tissues, viscera and hepatopancreas contained the highest percentages (47-74% and 8-41%, respectively). Together, these two tissue compartments accounted for 71 to 96% of all C2 toxins present. The biokinetic model allows a quantitative prediction of C2 toxins in whole ussel as well as individual tissue compartments based on the density estimates and toxin load of dinoflagellate cells in the surrounding waters over time.

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