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J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Dec;10(6):1009-13.

Ginger extract inhibits beta-amyloid peptide-induced cytokine and chemokine expression in cultured THP-1 monocytes.

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RMG Biosciences, Inc., Baltimore, MD, USA.



Neuritic plaques, a neuropathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, are extracellular deposits of beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta). In the central nervous system neuritic plaques are surrounded by activated microglial cells expressing proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and neurotoxic mediators. Long-term activation of microglial cells is suspected to contribute to the neuron loss in Alzheimer's disease.


This study was conducted to determine whether a ginger (Zingiber officinale and Alpinia galanga) extract (GE) can dampen the activation of THP-1 cells by lipopolysaccharide, proinflammatory cytokines, and fibrillar amyloid peptide Abeta(1-42), a major component of neuritic plaques.


THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line with properties similar to human microglial cells, were incubated with GE or control medium alone for 1 hour, and then with reincubated lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) or fibrillar Abeta(1-42) for an additional hour. The extent of THP-1 cell activation was determined by measuring mRNA levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10).


The results document that the GE used in this study inhibits LPS, cytokine, and amyloid Abeta peptide-induced expression of the proinflammatory genes TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, COX-2, MIP-alpha, MCP-1, and IP-10. The data provide experimental evidence that ginger can inhibit the activation of human monocytic THP-1 cells by different proinflammatory stimuli and reduce the expression of a wide range of inflammation-related genes in these microglial-like cells.


The findings suggest that GE may be useful in delaying the onset and the progression of neurodegenerative disorders involving chronically activated microglial cells in the central nervous system.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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