Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2004;21(5):399-408.

Osteoblasts induce prostate cancer proliferation and PSA expression through interleukin-6-mediated activation of the androgen receptor.

Author information

Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.


Prostate cancer (CaP) metastases selectively develop in bone as opposed to other sites through unknown mechanisms. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered to contribute to CaP progression and is produced at high levels in osteoblasts. We hypothesized that osteoblast-derived IL-6 in the bone microenvironment contributes to the fertile soil for CaP growth. Accordingly, human CaP cells, LNCaP, C4-2B and VCaP, were treated with conditioned medium (CM) collected from human osteoblast-like HOBIT cells grown in androgen-depleted medium. We found that CM induced proliferation, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) protein and mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner in these cell lines as determined by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. CM also activated the PSA promoter in these cells. Both HOBIT and primary osteoblast (POB) cells produced high levels of IL-6 measured by bioassay. LNCaP, C4-2B and VCaP cells expressed IL-6, but at much lower levels then the HOBIT and POB and they also expressed the IL-6 receptor mRNA, indicating they can respond to IL-6. Anti-IL-6 antibody added to HOBIT or POB CM dose-dependently inhibited the CM-induced cell proliferation and PSA expression in these CaP cell lines. HOBIT CM induced nuclear translocation of the AR and this was inhibited by anti-IL-6 antibody. Additionally, the antiandrogen bicalutamide inhibited HOBIT CM-induced cell proliferation. These results demonstrate that osteoblasts promote CaP growth through IL-6-mediated activation of the AR. Furthermore, these data underscore the importance of cross-talk between tumor and the bone microenvironment in the development of CaP bone metastases.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for MLibrary (Deep Blue)
Loading ...
Support Center