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Genes Cells. 2005 Jan;10(1):63-73.

Intrinsic nuclear import activity of geminin is essential to prevent re-initiation of DNA replication in Xenopus eggs.

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Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan.


Prior to S phase, eukaryotic chromosomes are licensed for initiation of DNA replication, and re-licensing is prohibited after S phase has started until late mitosis, thus ensuring that genomic DNA is duplicated precisely once in each cell cycle. Here, we report that over-expression of Cdt1, an essential licensing protein, induced re-replication in Xenopus egg extracts. Geminin, a metazoan-specific inhibitor of Cdt1, was critical for preventing re-replication induced by Cdt1. Re-replication induced by the addition of recombinant Cdt1 and/or by the depletion of geminin from extracts was enhanced by a proteasome inhibitor, which suppressed the degradation of Cdt1 in the extracts. Furthermore, a nuclear localization sequence identified in Xenopus geminin had a significant role in the suppression of re-replication induced by Cdt1. These results suggest that nuclear accumulation of geminin plays a dominant role in the licensing system of Xenopus eggs.

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