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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Apr;166(4):1208-13.

Rates and outcomes of planned pregnancy after use of Norplant capsules, Norplant II rods, or levonorgestrel-releasing or copper TCu 380Ag intrauterine contraceptive devices.

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Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, New York, NY 10017.



The objectives were to measure rates of planned pregnancy and factors affecting these rates after use of very-long-acting contraceptive methods (Norplant or Norplant II implants, a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive device, or the copper T (model TCu 380Ag) intrauterine contraceptive device.


The design was a concurrent, multicenter prospective study of 372 women who stopped contraception for planned pregnancy. Analysis was by life-table, log-rank, and standard chi 2 methods.


Pregnancy rates 12 and 24 months after cessation of contraceptive use were 82 and 89 per 100, respectively. Age at removal and family planning intentions at initiation of contraception were both significantly correlated with pregnancy rates (p less than 0.05), but former contraceptive regimen and duration of contraceptive use were not. Pregnancy outcomes did not deviate from normal limits and did not differ by contraceptive formerly used.


Contraceptive implants releasing 30 micrograms/day of levonorgestrel or intrauterine contraceptive devices releasing 20 micrograms/day of levonorgestrel or having copper surface areas of 380 mm2 are associated with normal fertility after use for women seeking pregnancy at termination. Durations of use do not affect pregnancy rates.


A Norplant capsule releasing 30 mcg/day of levonorgestrel (LNG), Norplant II rods releasing 30 mcg/day LNG, an IUD releasing 20 mcg/day LNG, and a model TCu 380Ag model copper T IUD were used in trials by 2748 women at 7 centers during 1882-90. 372 women requested removal by the end of 1990. 10-12% of implant subjects and 17-20% years and mean parity was 1.75. The 12-month life-table rate of pregnancy was 82/100 for those planning pregnancy. 2 years later the rate was 89/100 achieved for in the first years before age 30; and 93/100 of younger women got pregnant 2 years after removal. Duration of use for or= 3 years resulted in a pregnancy rate of 84/100, while use 3 years yielded 81/100. The rates were 85/100 at 1 year and 92/100 at 2 years for women desiring more children compared with the 70 and 81/100 rate of family limiters. Age was a major factor: under 30 years with or= 37 months of contraceptive use the pregnancy rate was 93/100, while age or= 30 years and use of 37 months produced a rate of 58/100 at 1 year. 58% of former users of Norplant II rods, 34% of LNG-releasing IUD users. 43% of copper T IUD, and 37% of Norplant capsules became pregnant within 3 months. Amenorrhea of 90 days occurred in LNG IUD users at removal with 1st month pregnancy of 5/100, but the conception rate reached 80- 92/100 at 1 year. 88% of pregnancies ended with live births: 2 newborns with weight of 2500 gm and tubal pregnancy in a former Norplant II rod user. Female neonates made up 50.5% of births. The recovery of fertility outcomes were not adversely affected by these methods.

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