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Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Jan;96(1):54-9.

Effect of sodium azulene sulfonate on capsaicin-induced pharyngitis in rats.

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Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan.


Sodium azulene sulfonate is a water-soluble derivative of azulene which is an antiinflammatory component of chamomile of the family of Asteraceae. Sodium azulene sulfonate is clinically used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of pharyngitis as well as other inflammatory diseases such as tonsillitis, stomatitis and conjunctivitis. There has been no documentation on the effect of sodium azulene sulfonate on pharyngitis in laboratory models, probably because of no availability of such models. We recently established a pharyngitis model using capsaicin application on pharyngeal mucosa in rats. The present study investigated the antipharyngitis activity of sodium azulene sulfonate comparing with those of ruthenium red (vanilloid receptor antagonist, 8.5 and 85 mg/ml), ascorbic acid (antioxidative compound, 100 microg/ml), povidone iodine (gargle as disinfectant, oxidative compound, 5 and 20 mg/ml) and diclofenac sodium (cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml). As an antipharyngeal effect, the capsaicin-induced plasma exudation in the pharyngeal mucosa of the rat was evaluated. The capsaicin-induced plasma exudation in the pharyngeal mucosa was inhibited by sodium azulene sulfonate (100 and 200 microg/ml) as well as ruthenium red and ascorbic acid, but not by povidone iodine and dicrofenac sodium; povidone iodine rather promoted the plasma exudation. In conclusion, the antipharyngitis effect of sodium azulene sulfonate was demonstrated for the first time in a laboratory model. Although the mechanism by which sodium azulene sulfonate inhibited the capsaicin-induced pharyngitis is not yet unraveled, antioxidative effect, but not inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase pathway, might be involved.

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