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Biochemistry. 2005 Feb 1;44(4):1353-66.

The thermodynamic landscape of testosterone binding to cytochrome P450 3A4: ligand binding and spin state equilibria.

Author information

1
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Abstract

Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 catalyzes the oxygen-dependent metabolism of greater than 60% of known drugs. CYP3A4 binds multiple ligands simultaneously, and this contributes to complex allosteric kinetic behavior. Substrates that bind to this enzyme change the ferric spin state equilibrium of the heme, which can be observed by optical absorbance and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The ligand-dependent spin state equilibrium has not been quantitatively understood for any ligands that exhibit multiple binding. The CYP3A4 substrate testosterone (TST) has been shown previously by absorbance spectroscopy to induce spin state changes that are characteristic of a low spin to high spin conversion. Here, EPR was used to examine the equilibrium binding of TST to CYP3A4 at [CYP3A4] > K(D), which allows for characterization of the singly occupied state (i.e., CYP3A4.TST). We also have used absorbance spectroscopy to examine equilibrium binding, where [CYP3A4] < K(D), which allows for determination of K(D)'s. The combination of absorbance and EPR spectroscopy at different CYP3A4 concentrations relative to K(D) and curve fitting of the resultant equilibrium binding titration curves to the Adair-Pauling equations, and modifications of it, reveals that the first equivalent of TST binds with higher affinity than the second equivalent of TST and its binding is positively cooperative with respect to ligand-dependent spin state conversion. Careful analysis of the EPR and absorbance spectral results suggests that the binding of the second TST induces a shift to the high spin state and thus that the second TST binding causes displacement of the bound water. A model involving six thermodynamic states is presented and this model is related to the turnover of the enzyme.

PMID:
15667229
DOI:
10.1021/bi0481390
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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