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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005 Jan;62(2):239-50.

Oestrogen-modulated gene expression in the human endometrium.

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Research Institute GROW, Postbus 5800, 6202, AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands.


To identify key regulatory mechanisms in the growth and development of the human endometrium, microarray analysis was performed on uncultured human endometrium collected during menstruation (M) and the late-proliferative (LATE-P)-phase of the menstrual cycle, as well as after 24 h incubation in the presence of oestradiol (17beta-E2). We demonstrate the expression of novel gene transcripts in the human endometrium. i.e. mucin-9, novel oestrogen-responsive gene transcripts, i.e. gelsolin and flotillin-1, and genes known to be expressed in human endometrium but not yet shown to be oestrogen responsive, i.e. connexin-37 and TFF1/pS2. Genes reported to be expressed during the implantation window and implicated in progesterone action, i.e. secretoglobin family 2A, member 2 (mammaglobin) and homeobox-containing proteins, were up-regulated in uncultured LATE-P-phase endometrium compared to M-phase endometrium. Some gene transcripts are regulated directly by 17beta-E2 alone, others are influenced by the in vivo environment as well. These observations emphasise that the regulation of endometrium maturation by oestrogen entails more then just stimulation of cell proliferation.

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