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Carcinogenesis. 2005 Apr;26(4):779-84. Epub 2005 Jan 20.

Decreased n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio reduces the invasive potential of human lung cancer cells by downregulation of cell adhesion/invasion-related genes.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Abstract

Recent studies have shown opposing effects of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on the development of cancer and suggest a role for the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the control of cancer. However, whether an alteration in the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of cancer cells affects their invasive potential has not been well investigated. We recently developed a genetic approach to modify the n-6/n-3 ratio by expression of the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an n-3 desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in mammalian cells. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of alteration in the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio on the invasive potential of human lung cancer A549 cells. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the n-3 desaturase resulted in a marked reduction of the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio, particularly the ratio of arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenic acid. Cell adhesion assay showed that the cells expressing fat-1 gene had a delayed adhesion and retarded colonization. Matrigel assay for invasion potential indicated a 2-fold reduction of cell migration in the fat-1 transgenic cells when compared with the control cells. An increased apoptosis was also observed in the fat-1 transgenic cells. Microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed a downregulation of several adhesion/invasion-related genes (MMP-1, integrin-alpha2 and nm23-H4) in the fat-1 transgenic cells. These results demonstrate that a decreased n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio reduces the invasion potential of human lung cancer cells by probably downregulating the cell adhesion/invasion-related molecules, suggesting a role for the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

PMID:
15661810
DOI:
10.1093/carcin/bgi019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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